Voltage Divider. Resistors R1, R2, and R3 in series make up the divider. Different voltages are measured at different taps (test points) on these resistors


In electronics, a voltage divider (also known as a potential divider) is a simple linear circuit that produces an output voltage (Vout) that is a fraction of its input voltage (Vin). Voltage division refers to the partitioning of a voltage among the components of the divider. Basically, its a series of resistors provided with taps (test points) at certain points and used to provide various potential differences from a single power source

The formula governing a voltage divider is similar to that for a current divider, but the ratio describing voltage division places the selected impedance in the numerator, unlike current division where it is the unselected components that enter the numerator.

A simple example of a voltage divider consists of two resistors in series or a potentiometer. It is commonly used to create a reference voltage, and may also be used as a signal attenuator at low frequencies. The ratio of individual resistance to total resistance is the same as the ratio of individual voltage drop to total supply voltage in a voltage divider circuit. The formula for voltage drop for resistor one is:

formula for voltage drop for resistor two is:

formula for voltage drop for resistor three is:

and so...<Kuphaldt, Tony., "Lessons In Electric Circuits, Volume I – DC"., 5th Ed., October 18, 2006