Year Event
300BC Erasistratus and Herophalics start to perform autopsies
100BC Ts’ai Lun invented paper
600AD The first, still remaining, hospital– the Hotel Dieu – was established in Paris.
840 Al-Khwaruznu founded the Arabic system of numbers and arthmetric
900 Rhazes described the use of plaster of paris splints
1100s The first medical schools were established in Europe.
1266 Peregrinus magnetic ore and labeled the ends north and south
1300s The Black Death, a form of bubonic plague kills more than 25% of the European population.
1317 Armati introduced spectacles
1440 Johaness Gutenberg invented the printing press
1490 Leonardo da Venci invented the elevator
1503 The first hospital was established in the West – in Santo Domingo, Hispaniola(now the Dominican Republic)
1578 William Harvey describes blood circulation in the human body, note that some say 1615
1585 Heironymus Fabricius described valves in veins
1590 Compound microscope introduced by Janssens
1612 Medical thermometer demonstrated by Sanctorius
1618 Gilbert distinguished between electricity and magnetism also conductor and insulators
1640 Talbor introduced quinine to control fevers
1642 Pascal invented the mechanical calculator for addition and subtraction
1643 Torricelli invented the barometer
1660 The lighted microscope demonstrated by van Leeuwenhock
1662 Boyles law, the volume of air is inversely proportional to the pressure applied
1684 Isaac Newton published the laws of motion and gravity
1714 Mill patented the typewriter
1721 Increase Mather experiments with inoculations to control small pox
1724 The Fahrenhiet temperature scale was introduced
1733 Steven Hales measures direct blood pressure in a horse
1738 Daniel Bernoulli reported the relationship between flow and pressure in fluids
1742 Anders Celsius introduced the temperature scale bearing his name
1745 Discovery of the electric condenser called the Leyden jar
1745 de Vucanson used punched paper tape to control the pattern on a loom
1751 The first hospital in the US – Pennsylvania Hospital – opened in Philadelphia.
1751 Ben Franklin publishes “Experiments and Observations on Electricity”
1761 Giovanni Morgagni publishes a work on pathology
1765 The first medical school was established in the US.
1765 Watt demonstrated the modern steam engine
1771 New York Hospital opened
1774 Joseph Priestly isolates oxygen from air
1785 Joseph Bramhe patents the pump handle for draft beer
1793 Eli Whitney introduced the cotton gin and the concept of standardized parts
1796 The first HMO started as the Boston Dispensary, the cost was $10.00 per year per family.
1796 Jenner discovered the immunological principle now known as vaccination
1798 Davy discovered the analgesic effect of nitrous oxide
1800 Alessandro Volta discovers the galvanic cell
1800 Bichat identified organs by their different types of tissue, founding histology
1816 French physician Rene Laennec invented the stethoscope, some say 1819
1816 Physic introduced sutures that were absorbed into the wound
1818 Micheal Farady discovered the analgesic effects of ether
1818 Oersted discovered a magnetic field around a wire carrying an electric current
1827 Ohm's Law introduced
1830 Niepce and Danuerre invented photography
1830 Henry and Faraday independently discovered electromagnetic induction
1831 Faraday produced a continuous current by rotating a metal disk in a magnetic field
1832 Gauss introduced units of measurement for magnetism
1832 Saxton developed the rotating coil, alternating current generator
1840 Morse patented the telegraph
1840 Baltimore College of Dental Surgery founded
1842 The first use of ether (by American surgeon Crawford Long ) as a partial anesthetic to mask pain during dental surgery.
1842 The Doppler effect documented by Chritian Doppler
1843 Wheatstone Bridge introduced by Sir Charles Wheatstone
1843 Joule quantitated the relationship between heat and mechanical work
1844 Nitrous Oxide introduced for clinical use, was discovered in 1798
1844 Goodyear patented the vulcanization of rubber
1845 Buys Ballot proved the Doppler effect of sound
1845 Dentist Horace Wells used nitrous oxide for a tooth extraction
1845 Hollow needle invented by Irish physician Francis Rynd
1845 Kirchhoff introduced the laws of electric circuits
1846 Ether used in abdominal surgery by Morton and Warren at MGH
1846 Howe patented the sewing machine
1847 Chloroform used by Simpson for surgery and OB
1847 American Medical Association formed
1847 Karl Friedrich Wilhelm Ludwig used a kymograph to record a blood pressure
1848 Lord Kelvin proposed the absolute temperature scale
1850 Opthalmoscope introduced by Hermann Von Helmholtz
1851 Mechanical refrigeration patented
1853 The hypodermic syringe introduced by Pravaz and Wood
1854 Florence Nightingale and her small team of nurses brought nursing care into prominence during the Crimean War in Turkey.
1856 Bernard introduced the use of curare to block neuromuscular signeal
1857 Louis Pastuer demonstrated that organisms could be killed by heat
1858 Lord Kelvin introduced the moving vane galvanometer
1859 Darwin proposed the theory of evolution through natural selection
1859 Lenoir invented the internal combustion engine
1861 Marcey and Chauveau performed a cardiac catherization on a horse
1866 First ambulance service started
1867 Locking forceps, to clamp blood vessels, were introduced by Spenser Wells
1867 Nobel developed dynamite
1869 Hyatt invented celluloid the first synthetic plastic
1870 The Fick method of determining cardiac output was introduced
1870 Lister showed that surgical infections can be caused by airborne organisms and those organisms can be killed with the use of carbolic acid
1873 The first nursing school was established in the US
1875 Caton recorded an EEG of a rabbit using the galvanometer developed by Kelvin
1875 Chloral hydrate introduced as an injectable anesthetic agent
1876 The sphygmomanometer was invented.
1876 Adolphus Busch introduces bottled beer
1876 Alexander Bell patented the telephone
1875 The telephone was invented by Bell
1877 Pastuer vaccinated sheep for anthrax
1879 Edison invents the electric light
1880 von Anrep demonstrated the local anesthetic effects for cocaine
1880 d’Arsonval introduced the moving coil galvanometer
1880 Thomas Edison invented the filament electric light
1880 Ringer’s Solutions demonstrated
1881 American Red Cross founded by Clara Barton
1981 The International Congress of Electricians standardized measurements
1886 Punch cards for tabulating data introduced by Hollerith
1886 Steam sterilization introduced by von Bergmann
1887 Nikola Tesla develops the electric motor
1887 Heinrich Hertz discovered electromagnetic radiation
1887 Michelson and Morley measured the speed of light
1888 Carbon brushes introduced for electric motors, by vanDepoele
1889 Eastman started the production of photographic film
1890 First electrocution of a convict at Auburn prison in NY, William Kemmler
1890 Halsted and Bloodworth introduced the use of rubber gloves for surgery
1892 General Electric formed
1895 X-rays discovered by Willem Roentgen
1895 Hershey’s introduces the chocolate bar
1896 Harvard Apparatus started producing medical devices for physician training in the US.
1896 Marconi experiments with wireless transmissions
1896 Riva-Rocca, Hill and Barnard independently develop the “cuff’ for indirect measurement of blood pressures
1899 The first commercial production of aspirin.
1899 The Ford Motor company organized
1899 Pervost and Battelli created and arrested V Fib in mammals using both AC and DC currents
1901 Trans-Atlantic radio
1901 Blood typing developed
1903 EKG demonstrated by Einthoven
1903 First powered flight by the Wright brothers
1904 Fleming discovered the rectifing vacuum tube
1904 Harvey Hubbell patents the electrical plug and outlet
1905 Nikolai Korotkoff described the use of sounds in determining blood pressure
1906 Lee DeForest invented the triode vacuum tube
1910 Montgomery Ward offered employees a health insurance plan
1910 Sickle Cell anemia described
1910 Richard Cabot studies 1,000 autopsies and finds that 40% had the wrong cause of death
1910 Morgan established that chromosomes as the carriers of heredity
1912 DeForest and Longwood developed the first vacuum tube amplifier
1912 The first recorded death due to radiation poisoning, Clarance Daley who worked for Thomas Edison.
1914 DeForest and Armstrong developed continuous oscillators, working independently
1914 Electric stop lights installed in Cleveland Ohio
1915 Midmark Corp. opened for business
1916 Polio epidemic in US 6,000 die, 27,000 paralyzed
1916 Heparin discovered by Mclean and Howell
1918 500,000 die in US in the Flu epidemic
1920 KDKA, Pittsburgh), goes on the air as the first radio station
1922 the US Army open a central repair depot for medical devices in St. Louis
1922 Banting discovered insulin
1923 The first successful cardiac valve surgery, Brigham Hospital in Boston
1925 Colposcope invented by Hinselmann in Germany
1926 The concept of homeostasis in published by Walter Cannon
1926 DeForest developed a method of recording sound onto a the film of a motion picture
1927 Sanborn Instruments of Cambridge MA introduces the “portable” ECG recorder
1927 The infant formula Simulac developed at the Boston Floating Hospital for Children
1927 Bloodless surgery introduced by Dr. Cushing and W. T. Bovie at Huntington Hospital in Boston, commonly called electrosurgery. Some say 1926
1928 Iron lung developed in Boston by Philip Drinker and Louis Shaw
1928 Penicillin discovered by Alexander Fleming
1928 Harold Edgerton develops the strobe light
1928 Farnsworth demonstrated the all electric television system
1929 Berger recorded the first human EEG signals
1929 First Blue Cross plan offered for municipal employees in Dallas Texas
1929 Bell Labs demonstrated the color televsion
1933 Cyclopropane introduced
1934 Ruska invented the electron microscope
1935 Grass Instrument founded, EEG
1935 Nylon invented by Wallace Carothers at DuPont
1938 Passage of the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act initiated the requirement that all drugs be approved by the FDA prior to being marketed in the US.
1938 First expermintal FM radio braodcasts
1938 Rh factor in blood discovered by Levine and Stetson
1939 Pan-Am introduces scheduled flights between the US and Europe
1939 Armstrong developed FM radio transmissions
1939 Muller developed DDT
1940 Rh factor in blood discovered by Landsteiner
1942 First controlled nuclear reaction at University of Chicago
1943 First biomedical repair training program open at Army repair depot, a 3 month program
1943 Dirks invented the magnetic drum memory
1944 Willem Kolff demonstrated and artificial kidney using sausage skins
1944 First catheterization of the heart chambers and lung, Brigham Hospital, Boston
1946 ENIAC computer introduced
1946 Dunlee X-Ray tube company founded
1946 CDC founded in Georgia
1946 The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission started
1946 RCA starts to mass produce television sets
1947 Hill-Burton Act passed supporting hospital construction in the US
1947 First artificial kidney machine perfected, Brigham Hospital, Boston
1948 Brattain and Bardeen working under William Shockley at Bell Labs co-discovered the physical phenomenon that led to the development of the transistor.
1948 First cable TV network
1948 Polaroid introduces the “instant” camera
1948 World Health Organization founded
1949 Medtronic Founded
1949 Shorkley discovered the junction trnsistor
1950 Vidicon developed allowing for fluoroscopic images without a luminesense screen.
1950 External cardiac pacing demonstrated by John Hopps at Univ. of Manitoba
1950 First nuclear medicine application
1950 Electronics for Medicine formed
1950 Color television demonstrated
1951 UNIVAC 1 computer released
1951 The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals (JCAH) – the predecessor to today’s JCAHO - was established.
1952 The Apgar score for newborns developed by Virginia Apgar
1953 First “open Heart” operation
1953 First kidney transplant, between twin brothers, was done at Peter Brent Brigham Hospital in Boston
1953 Electrodyne formed
1953 PET scanner demonstrated by Gordon Brownwell at MIT/MGH
1953 Microwave oven introduced
1954 The rotating anode X-Ray tube introduced
1954 Watson and Crick received the Nobel Prize for their elucidation of the double helix structure of DNA.
1954 The MASER was demonstrated by Gordon and Townes of Bell Labs, a precursor to the LASER
1954 The computer language FORTRAN introduced by IBM
1955 Salk’s oral vaccine for poliomyelitis became generally available;
1955 Zoll demonstrated ventricular pacing with thoracic electrodes
1956 Zoll demonstrates defibrillation using AC
1956. Cournand, Richards, and Forssman shared a Nobel Prize for their contributions to

the advancement of cardiac catheterization. It was German, Werner Forssman who had passed a urological catheter from a vein in his right arm into his right atrium when he was a surgical intern in 1929 to first demonstrate the feasibility of this technique.

1956 Heart-lung bypass technology received a significant boost with the development of the membrane oxygenator which allowed extracorporeal circulation of the blood for days or even weeks without toxicity or hemolysis.
1956 Radioimmunoassey developed by Yalow and Berson
1956 Ampex introduces the video tape recorder
1956 Halothane introduced
1957 The Emerson “post-op” volume ventilator was introduced using a pressure cooker on a hot plate for humidifying the air stream and “choirboy” scrubbing pads as bacterial filters.
1957 Sputnick goes into orbit
1957 The fiber endoscope introduced by Hirschowitz
1957 First atomic power plant open in Shippingport PA. shut down in 1982
1957 Sabin polio vaccine came into use
1958 Physician-engineer Forrest Bird introduced his Universal Medical Respirator, a little green box known far and wide as “The Bird”.
1958 Gamma camera invented by Hal Anger
1958 Greatbach introduces the implanted pacemaker
1958 The IC is introduced by Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments
1959 The first monitored CCU was installed at Bethany Hospital in Missouri with Electrodyne Equipment
1959 Xerox introduces the plain paper copier
1960 The use of ultrasound to image internal organs became a commercial product
1960 The first LASER was built by Maiman at Hughes Aircraft using a ruby
1960 The “pill” was approved by the FDA for sale
1960 The “Ball Valve” introduced for cardiac surgery
1960 The Medtronic implantable pacer sells for $375.00
1960 IBM introduces the 360 business computer
1961 The nation’s growing “Medical Technology Imperative” is given a boost by

President John F. Kennedy’s call for the US to put a man on the moon before the end of the decade.

1961 Yuri Gagarin orbits the earth.
1961 PhysioControl formed by Dr. Edmark
1961 Zoll reported the successful use of an implanted pacemaker to treat A-V block
1962 Severed arm successfully reattached at Mass General
1963 Sanborn was sold to Hewlett Packard.
1963 The DC Defibrillator, developed by Dr. Lown became commercially available, marketed by American Optical.
1963 De Bakey uses an artificial heart during surgery
1963 Touch tone dialing introduced
1964 Creation of a federally-funded (National Heart Institute) Artificial Heart program

drew upon the strong technological capabilities of the nation’s aerospace contractors. Controversy about the relative promise of artificial organs and transplanted organs continues long after this funding was cut off in the 1980s.

1964 Staewen and Tabatznik publish “Electrical shock hazards in electrocardography and other laboratory procedures”
1964 The CO2 LASER was introduced
1964 Dr Michael De Bakey performed the first coronary artery bypass (CAB) operation
1964 Medicare became law covering the medical expenses of retired and disabled
1964 Computer program MUMPS developed
1964 IBM introduces the System 360
1964 Tape loops introduced to store ECG data for up to 60 seconds in an ICU setting
1964 The US Surgeon General, Luther Terry, issued a report stating that smoking is hazardous to your health
1967 Christian Barnard performed the first human whole-heart transplant in Capetown, South Africa, patient lived for 18 days.
1967 The “explosion proof” patient monitor for the operating room was introduced into general hospitals by Electronics for Medicine.
1967 A new professional trade group, the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI) was founded.
1968 Dr. Denton Cooley implanted a short-lived, non-FDA-approved artificial heart.
1968 The Puritan Bennett model MA-1 ventilator became commercially available.
1968 Swan-Ganz catheter introduced
1968 The nation’s first investor-owned hospital was opened in Nashville by the Hospital Corporation of America (HCA).
1968 Michael DeBakey develops the left ventricular bypass pump
1968 An IABP developed by Arthur Kantrowitz went into commercial use sold by AVCO, base off of work by Dwight Harkin in 1958
1968 The computer mouse was introduced
1969 A four-university network of large computers, known as the ARPAnet was

created by the Department of Defense. This would later expand and morph into the Internet.

1969 Electrodyne introduced the “segmented trace” scope a precursor to solid trace displays
1969 First installation of the Meditech system at Cape Cod Hospital
1969 ECRI publishes Health Devices
1969 The “Pig Valve” introduced as a cardiac valve replacement
1969 Man walked on the moon, Neil Armstrong and Buss Aldrin, July 20
1970 The first “Solid Trace” display scope introduced by Electrodyne, using

capacitance delay techniques, previously all display scopes were “bouncing ball”.

1971 Fetal Monitors introduced into the general hospital market by Corometrics.
1971 Intel introduces the first microprocessor
1971 Texas Instruments releases the pocket calculator
1971 Ralph Nader publishes an article in the March issue of the Ladies Home Journal on deaths in hospitals caused by electrical leakage.
1972 “Solid Trace” display using shift register technology introduced by Electrodyne which was bought by Becton Dickenson
1972 NFPA requires isolated power systems in hospitals
1972 Atari releases PONG the first video game
1972 In December Apollo 17 the last moon landing took place
1973 The Williams-Steiger Act created OSHA.
1974 CT first installed for clinical use
1974 Ethrane introduced
1974 Kellogg Foundations provides grants to Clinical Engineering shared service organizations
1974 Spacelabs introduces the Alpha series of monitors
1975 Altair 8800 personal computer introduced for $400.00
1975 Gates and Allen introduce a BASIC computer
1975 Jobs, Sculley and Wozniak launch the Apple PC
1976 The FDA’s Medical Device Amendments, (PL94-295) which extended the FDA’sjurisdiction to medical devices and created the Good Manufacturing Practices regulations .
1976 Apple computer introduced
1977 The first in-vitro fertilization which resulted in the birth of Louise Brown in 1978

Three Mile Island nuclear accident

1980 Forane Introduced
1980 North Carolina Biomedical Association formed
1981 DRG’s introduced
1981 IBM comes out with its PC 5150
1982 US Counseling Services introduced “maintenance insurance” as a lower cost

alternative to manufacturer full service contracts. The cost is typically at least 20% less than a comparable manufacturer contract. Similar offerings by other insurance companies quickly follow. This concept will bring about significant changes in the medical equipment maintenance aftermarket.

1982 Barney Clark lives for 4 months with an artificial heart
1982 Commercial e-mail debuts
1983 Cyclosporin the anti rejection drug was introduced allowing for more transplants
1983 Dr Sam Maslak, of Acuson Corporation, developed the 128-channel computedsonography. transducer Rotating head transducers were replaced by this “phased array” system.
1983 Cellular phone introduced
1983 PET demonstrated by Dr. Henry Wagner
1983 Technicare sold to Johnson & Johnson
1984 The NMR, now called the MRI, introduced by Dr. Damadian of Fonar
1984 Apple Computer releases the Macintosh computer
1985 Laser angioplasty demonstrated
1985 Irex sold to Johnson & Johnson
1985 GE buys Technicare, (nuke medicine scanners)
1986 Chernobyl accident occurred killing 31 at the time plus countless others from the release of radioactive material.
1986 William Schroeder died on August 6 after 620 days with an artificial heart
1989 The North American College of Clinical Engineering was formed became ACCE in 1991
1990 Diassonics sold to GE
1991 AOL dial up service
1992 Desflurane introduced
1994 The “Chunnel” between England and France was officially open to traffic
1994 GE Medical purchases Marquette Medical Systems, note that Marquette purchased most of the GE monitoring technology when GE got out of that business in 1980.
1995 Servoflurane introduced
1995 Yahoo debuts as a search engine
1995 Amazon becomes the on line book store
1997 HP/Agilent and ATL ultrasound sold to Philips
1998 Multi slice CT introduced
1998 Viagra introduced to market
1999 The Blackberry is introduced
1999 PET/CT introduced
2000 Y2K proved to be a false alarm
2000 Acuson sold to Siemens
2002 B&K sold to Dornier MedTech
2008 BMETWiki site was born on Jan 8th by Mr. Jeremy Compton
2009 FMESA formed (Federation of Medical Equipment Support Associations). First Congress held in Nashville.
2010 BMETWiki had a makeover and added new dropdown menus.