Lithium-ion battery

Lithium-ion or cell phone battery


Lithium-ion battery (sometimes abbreviated Li-ion battery or LIB) is a family of rechargeable battery types in which lithium ions move from the negative electrode to the positive electrode during discharge, and back when charging. Chemistry, performance, cost, and safety characteristics vary across LIB types. Unlike lithium primary batteries (which are disposable), lithium-ion cells use an intercalated lithium compound as the electrode material instead of metallic lithium.

Lithium ion batteries are common in consumer electronics. They are one of the most popular types of battery for portable electronics, with one of the best energy-to-weight ratios, no memory effect, and a slow loss of charge when not in use. In addition to uses for consumer electronics, lithium-ion batteries are growing in popularity for defense, automotive, and aerospace applications due to their high energy density."[1]


The three primary functional components of a lithium-ion battery are the anode, cathode, and electrolyte. The anode of a conventional lithium-ion cell is made from carbon, the cathode is a metal oxide, and the electrolyte is a salt in an organic compound solvent.[2]

The most commercially popular anode material is graphite. The cathode is generally one of three materials: a layered oxide (such as lithium cobalt oxide), a polyanion (such as lithium iron phosphate), or a spinel (such as lithium manganese oxide).[3]


Lithium-ion battery

The electrolyte is typically a mixture of organic carbonates such as ethylene carbonate or diethyl carbonate containing complexes of lithium ions.[4] These non-aqueous electrolytes generally use non-coordinating anion salts such as lithium hexafluorophosphate, lithium hexafluoroarsenate monohydrate, lithium perchlorate, lithium tetrafluoroborate, and lithium triflate.

Depending on materials choices, the voltage, capacity, life, and safety of a lithium-ion battery can change dramatically. Recently, Nanoarchitectures for lithium-ion batteries using nanotechnology have been employed to improve performance.

Pure lithium is very reactive. It reacts vigorously with water to form lithium hydroxide and hydrogen gas is liberated. Thus a non-aqueous electrolyte is typically used, and a sealed container rigidly excludes water from the battery pack.

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  2. Silberberg, M. 2006. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th Ed. New York (NY): McGraw-Hill Education. p 935.
  3. Thackeray, Thomas, and Whittingham (March 2000). Science and Applications of Mixed Conductors for Lithium Batteries.; Materials Research Society. Retrieved 2010-06-11.
  4. MSDS: National Power Corp Lithium Ion Batteries.; Tektronix Inc., May 7, 2004. Retrieved 2010-06-11.