In telecommunications, frequency modulation (FM) conveys information over a carrier wave by varying its instantaneous frequency (contrast this with amplitude modulation, in which the amplitude of the carrier is varied while its frequency remains constant). In analog applications, the difference between the instantaneous and the base frequency of the carrier is directly proportional to the instantaneous value of the input signal. Digital data can be sent by shifting the carrier's frequency among a set of discrete values, a technique known as frequency-shift keying.


dwin H. Armstrong, known as one of the founding fathers of radio technology, invented the superheterodyne radio receiver in 1918 and frequency modulation (FM) in 1933. These two concepts, along with his regenerative circuit technique developed in 1912, formed the basis of radio frequency electronics as we know it today. In the United States, FM radio stations broadcast between radio frequencies of 88 MHz to 108 MHz with a channel bandwidth of 200 kHz. FM radio was first deployed in monaural in 1940; and in 1960, FM stereo was introduced.


  • its resilience to signal level variations and signal level variations will not affect the audio output.
  • ideal for mobile or portable applications.
  • resilience against noise and interference.
  • used for high quality broadcast transmissions as well as a higher bandwidth.
  • Easy to apply modulation at a low power stage of the transmitter.


  • widely used at VHF and above.