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A closed-loop control system is one in which an input forcing function is determined in part by the system response. The measured response of a physical system is compared with a desired response. The difference between these two responses initiates actions that will result in the actual response of the system to approach the desired response. This in turn drives the difference signal toward zero. Typically the difference signal is processed by another physical system, which is called a compensator, a controller, or a filter for real-time control system applications.

A closed-loop transfer function in control theory is a mathematical expression (algorithm) describing the net result of the effects of a closed (feedback) loop on the input signal to the circuits enclosed by the loop. The closed-loop transfer function is measured at the output. The output signal waveform can be calculated from the closed-loop transfer function and the input signal waveform.

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